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harmony with the nine responsories to the readings of Matins narrating the life of Francis. The three movements or nocturns of Matins unfold, therefore, accenting through antiphons, psalms, lessons and responsories Francis’s youthful struggles, his conversion, and his Spirit-filled life. At their heart, the fifth responsory, the ecclesial theme of Gregory's hymn of First Vespers is re-introduced: “Foreshadowing his Orders three/ From God the inspiration came/ Francis built up churches three." 20 Julian sees the mission of the three orders of the Brothers, the Poor Ladies, and the Penitents rooted in Francis’s work of rebuilding the three churches.

Lauds (Morning Prayer) continues the presentation of Francis’s life of virtue. The first antiphon begins by focusing on his prayer, the fifth concludes the hour’s psalms by accentuating his characteristic praise of the Savior and Creator. The hour’s other antiphons highlight Francis’s preaching, his role in the three Orders, and the spiritual teachings he gave to his followers. The hymn of the Cistercian Cardinal Ranieri Capocci, Plaude, turba paupercula, is a richly textured praise of Francis’s living and teaching poverty, echoes of which will fill the pages of Franciscan spirituality.21 Zachary’s Canticle, the Benedictus, which traditionally brings the hour to a close, introduces the theme of Francis’s desire for martyrdom and, in so doing, recalls the stigmata.

The stigmata of Saint Francis appears four times in the course of the texts of the Divine Office. The first is in the Invitatory antiphon for Matins: “The marks of whose redeeming wounds/ In Saint Francis are renewed”22 and the second is in the Benedictus antiphon: "The Seraph on the cross you saw . . ."23 In both of these, Julian of Speyer goes beyond Thomas of Celano’s description of the stigmata in The Life of Saint Francis.24 In Julian of Speyer’s texts, the stigmata becomes a sign of the renewal of Christ’s presence in Francis and in the world, not just a sign of Francis’s intimate contemplative union with Christ on the cross. Furthermore, Julian of Speyer places the Seraph “on the cross,” a new feature beyond “a man . . . like a Seraph” in The Life of Saint Francis by Thomas of Celano.

The more significant theological and symbolic development concerning the stigmata in the Divine Office is found in Thomas of Capua’s hymn for Second Vespers: “Regal seals on our worthy guide/ Are imprinted on hand and side . . .”25 and in Ranieri Capocci’s antiphon for the Octave: “To him the Seraph did appear/ Who marked him with his sacred seal . . .”26 The stigmata authenticates Francis as a trustworthy teacher and guide for the Christian life: it is safe to follow him. The Cardinals extend the symbol and significance of the stigmata to confirm Francis’s teaching authority. The seraph, beyond its role in Thomas of Celano's text, here takes on an active role. The seraph becomes the agent actually "marking" Francis with the wounds. In the liturgical texts of the Divine Office, the already highly symbolic nature of the stigmata and the seraph first presented in The Life of Saint Francis by Thomas of Celano received greater emphasis. Julian of Speyer took liberty with Thomas of Celano’s narration of the




Francis of Assisi: Early Documents, vol. 1, p. 314