General Introduction - 24 


  1. Maurice Causse, "Des Sources Primitives de La Legende des Trois Compagnons," Collectanea Franciscana 69/3-4 (1998): 469-491. Causse suggests that the authors also had access to another unknown document, possibly a copy of the canonical process investigating Francis’s canonization, a document that has unfortunately been lost.
  2. Salimbene de Adam notes that "Crescentius commanded Brother Thomas of Celano, who had written the first Legend of Saint Francis, to write another book, because many things about Saint Francis had been discovered which had never been written." Salimbene de Adam, The Chronicle of Salimbene de Adam, Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, 40, ed. Joseph L. Baird, Giuseppe Baglivi, and John Robert Kane (Binghamton, NY: Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, University Center at Binghamton, 1986), 294. All future references to this work will be from this translation. Thomas of Celano himself indicates that the choice of his role was that of the General Chapter of Genoa in 1244: "The holy gathering of the last general chapter and you, most reverend father, chose to charge us, insignificant as we are, to write down the deeds as well as the words of our glorious father Francis, for the consolation of our contemporaries and the remembrance of future generations" (2C 1).
  3. Cf. FA:ED I 570-575.
  4. Cf. FA:ED II 774-779
  5. Iriarte, Franciscan History, 37. That the implications of Ordinem vestrum, as well as Quo elongati, continue to disturb the collective conscience of the Lesser Brothers can be seen in the intense preparations for and the documents of the Sixth Plenary Council of the Capuchin Friars Minor dedicated to the study of Institutional Poverty. Cf. Analecta Ordinis Fratrum Minorum Capuccinorum 114:3 (1998).
  6. Innocent IV went further in a decree he issued on August 19, 1247. Two weeks earlier, August 6, 1247, he had issued Cum omnis vera religio, a Form of Life for the Order of Saint Damian, i.e., the followers of Saint Clare. Since it was not widely accepted, he issued a second decree, Quoties a nobis, August 23, 1247, insisting on its observance. Three years later he rescinded the universal imposition of his Form of Life and, in 1253, gave Clare, on her death bed, papal approval of her Rule. Cf. Clare of Assisi: Early Documents, 2nd ed., translated and edited by Regis J. Armstrong (St. Bonaventure NY: The Franciscan Institute, 1993), 113.
  7. Thomas of Celano, The Remembrance of the Desire of a Soul, 26 (hereafter 2C), infra, 263.
  8. Michael Bihl, Analecta Franciscana sive Chronica Aliaque Varia Documenta ad Historiam Fratrum Minorum X (Ad Claras Aquas, Quaracchi: Collegium S. Bonaventurae, 1926-1941), xxvi (hereafter AF X).
  9. ChrTE 13. John was sufficiently strong to reconcile the subtle factions at the University and was also aware of the need to develop deeper bonds of unity among the brothers beyond the Italian peninsula. Both of these attributes made him an ideal candidate for General Minister.
  10. Ibid.
  11. Cf. Archiv fur Litteratur und Kirchenheschichte des Mittelalters, vol. II, (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1885-1900), 263.
  12. Thomas of Celano, The Treatise on the Miracles of Saint Francis 197 (hereafter 3C). Infra.
  13. Cf. Bihl, AF X xxxviii.
  14. Cf. André Vauchez, "The Stigmata of Saint Francis and Its Medieval Detractors," Greyfriars Review 13 (1999): 61-89 (hereafter GR).
  15. ChrTE 13.
  16. Cf. infra, 472.
  17. A Letter on the Passing of Saint Francis attributed to Elias of Assisi, infra.
  18. Francis of Assisi, Later Rule X 8 (hereafter LR), FA:ED I 105.
  19. Salimbene, Chronicle, 294.
  20. Iriarte, Franciscan History, 39.
  21. Bernard McGinn notes: "Bernard of Clairvaux and Bonaventure—the doctor mellifluous and the doctor seraphicus—may be justly described as the two premier mystical teachers of the Medieval West. Both were important ecclesiastical officials who were forced to be men of action, as well as of contemplation. Both wrote on a variety of theological and church-political topics, as well as on how the soul attains God in this life." Bernard McGinn, The Presence of God: A History of Western Christian Mysticism, The Flowering of Mysticism (New York: The Crossroad Publishing Company, 1998), 87.
  22. Both of these letters can be found in Works of Saint Bonaventure: Writings Concerning the Franciscan Order, edited and translated by Dominic Monti (St. Bonaventure, NY: Franciscan Institute Publications, 1994), 57-62, 225-229.
  23. Monti’s edition of the text not only offers an excellent translation; it provides critical apparatus that enables readers to see how the Narbonne statutes occur in the earlier edition of the constitutions produced by Cesare Cenci.
  24. Cesare Cenci, "De Fratrum Minorum constitutionibus praenarbonensibus," Archivum Franciscanum Historicum 83 (1990): 50-95 (hereafter AFH); "The Constitutions of Narbonne" (1260), in Writings Concerning the Franciscan Order, Works of Saint Bonaventure V, introduction and translation by Dominic Monti (St. Bonaventure, NY: Franciscan Institute Publications, 1994), 71-135.




Francis of Assisi: Early Documents, vol. 2, p. 24