General Introduction - 23 


  1. Francis of Assisi, The Testament 38-39 (hereafter Test), in Francis of Assisi: Early Documents, Vol. 1 The Saint, 127 (hereafter FA:ED I, II, or III respectively).
  2. As an example, see Gregory’s letter, Quoniam abundavit (1237), FA:ED I 575-577.
  3. Cf. Cajetan Esser, The Rule and Testament of Saint Francis: Conferences for Modern Followers of St. Francis, translated by Sr. Audrey Marie (Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, 1977).
  4. Cf. FA:ED I, 571.
  5. John R.H. Moorman, A History of the Franciscan Order: From Its Origins to the Year 1517 (London: Oxford University Press, 1968).
  6. Raphael Huber, A Documented History of the Franciscan Order from the Birth of St. Francis to the Division of the Order 1182-1517 (Milwaukee: Nowiny Publishing Apostolate, 1944).
  7. Duncan Nimmo, Reform and Division in the Medieval Franciscan Order: From Saint Francis to the Foundation of the Capuchins, Bibliotheca Seraphico-Cappuccina 33 (Rome: Capuchin Historical Institute, 1987).
  8. Franz Cardinal Ehrle, "Die Spiritualen, ihr Verhältnis zum Franziskanerorden und zu den Fraticellen," in Archiv für Literatur und Kirchengeschichte des Mittelalters, III (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1885-1900).
  9. Livarius Oliger, "Spirituels," Dictionnaire de Théologie Catholique, vol. 14, ed. A. Vacant and E. Mangenot, (Paris: Librairie Letouzey et Ani, 1930), 2522-2549.
  10. Lazaro Iriarte, Franciscan History: The Three Orders of St. Francis of Assisi, trans. Patricia Ross, with an appendix, "The Historical Context of the Franciscan Movement," by Lawrence C. Landini (Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, 1982)
  11. Thaddeus MacVicar, The Franciscan Spirituals and the Capuchin Reform, edited by Charles McCarron (St. Bonaventure, NY: The Franciscan Institute, 1986).
  12. FA:ED I 529-554.
  13. The editors debated the place of this document. On one hand, it deserves to be placed in this second volume since it reflects a tendency to focus on the ideals of the founder and the primitive fraternity. On the other hand, it does have that sense of the biblical idealism of those early days and, in spirit at least, belongs to the texts of the first volume. After much consideration—and for more practical reasons—it was placed in volume one, The Saint.
  14. Cf. Thomas of Eccleston, The Coming of the Lesser Brothers to England 14, in XIIIth Century Chronicles (hereafter ChrTE), translated by Placed Hermann, introduction and notes by Marie-Therese Laureille (Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, 1961), 166. All future references to this work will be to this translation.
  15. Cf. Iriarte, Franciscan History, 36.
  16. "The Chapter of 1230 split up most of the Provinces, so that there were twelve in Italy, two in Germany, five in France, three in Spain, two in British Isles, and one in the East. " Iriarte, Franciscan History, 79.
  17. Cf. Iriarte, Franciscan History, 136-137.
  18. John of Perugia, The Beginning of the Founding of the Order and the Deeds of Those Lesser Brothers Who Were the First Companions of Blessed Francis in Religion (The Anonymous of Perugia) 2 (hereafter AP), infra, 34.
  19. "This was a democratic move, borrowed from the Dominicans, which gave the friars power to elect their own representatives or ‘definitors’ who were to meet during the two years when there was no meeting of the General Chapter. . . . The Definitors met for their first chapter at Montpellier in 1241, but the experiment does not seem to have been a success, and no further meetings were called. The word ‘definitor’ was retained; but it was applied in future either to those friars who were summoned to the General Chapter, though without power of voting, or to those who were elected by the Provincial Chapters to assist in the administration of the province." Cf. Moorman, History, 106. The word "definitor" entered the vocabulary of the Lesser Brothers through the Premonstratensians and the Friars Preacher who used the word to describe an officer whose task was the inquiry into misuses and their amendment. Cf. J.F. Niermayer, Mediae Latinitatis Lexicon Minus (Leiden, New York, Köln: Brill, 1997), 314.
  20. Its members: Adam Marsh, Peter of Tewkesbury, and Henry of Buford. Cf. ChtTE, 13.
  21. The four Parisian masters were: Alexander of Hales, John de La Rochelle, Odo Rigaldus, and Robert of Bascia. These Cf. Expositio Quattuor Magistrorum super Regulam Fratruum Minorum [1241-2], ed. Livarius Oliger (Rome: 1954) and also. FA:ED I 312.
  22. ChrTE 13.
  23. Cf. "Chronica XXIV Generalium," Analecta Franciscana sive Chronica Aliaque Varia Documenta ad Historiam Fratrum Minorum III (Ad Claras Aquas, Quaracchi: Collegium S. Bonaventurae, 1897), 262 (hereafter AF III).
  24. Crescentius seems to have been a member of the liberal party which desired more concessions. Shortly after his election, he received the bull Ordinem Vestrum of Innocent IV, infra, 774-779.




Francis of Assisi: Early Documents, vol. 2, p. 23